如何進行外貿英譯中(二)詞匯篇

第二章 外貿英譯漢詞語翻譯 詞語是最基礎的一個翻譯單位。詞語的處理是否恰當關系到句子、段落乃至整個文章的翻譯質量。下面,介紹外貿英譯漢過程中詞語翻譯的方法。 1如何選詞 我們知道,外貿英語中除了專業術語、專有名詞和一些套語外,大部分是常用詞。這
第二章 外貿英譯漢詞語翻譯
 
詞語是最基礎的一個翻譯單位。詞語的處理是否恰當關系到句子、段落乃至整個文章的翻譯質量。下面,介紹外貿英譯漢過程中詞語翻譯的方法。
 
1如何選詞
 
我們知道,外貿英語中除了專業術語、專有名詞和一些套語外,大部分是常用詞。這類詞含義豐富,使用靈活,同一個詞用在不同專業、不同上下文中或與不同詞組搭配,或表達的概念不同,或同一概念所產生的聯想不同,漢譯時選詞就不一樣。對于這類常用詞,處理方法就不同于處理專業術語,可以一對一地按套路去理解和翻譯,而要經過一個由辨明詞義到斟酌詞語的推敲過程。因此,所謂恰當選詞指的是兩個方面:一是理解階段把握詞義要準確無誤;二是漢譯階段選擇用詞要恰如其分。從翻譯實踐中看,要做到這一點,往往離不開一個正確的選擇方法和思路,就是說在處理詞語翻譯時,需要知道從哪些方面入手可以更好地避免在詞義的理解和表達上出現失誤。
 
1.1選詞要考慮詞的一般含義和特殊含義
 
詞的一般含義是指用于文學和社會生活方面的含義;特殊含義則是指用于專業方面的含義。我們在外貿英語中見到的許多詞本身都具有這一特點。這類詞可以一詞多用,出現在不同專業領域中表達的概念也會截然不同。以“policy”為例,該詞在一般意義上作“方針”、“政策”解,如“a business policy of the company”(該公司的經營方針)。但是用在保險業中卻作“保單”解,這就是該詞的特殊含義。因此,翻譯時若碰到“open policy”這一詞組,就需要根據文章內容辨別它是在一般意義上還是在專業意義上使用,是譯作“開放政策”,還是譯作“一切險預約保單”。類似情況在外貿英語中會經常遇到,現舉數例說明這一現象:
 
例1 ①Industrial averages were up.   譯文:工業股票的平均價格在上漲。
 
②Average is of two kinds: General Average and Particular Average.
 
譯文:海損有兩種:一種是共同海損,另一種是單獨海損。
 
兩句中,“average”因用在不同專業領域而具有截然不同的含義。第①句中為股票用語,指的是(若干種股票的)平均價格;第②句中則為保險業用語,意為海損費用。
 
例2
 
①The entrepreneur seeks out opportunities, tries things out, and makes decisions based as much on hunch as on analysis.
 
譯文:企業家總是努力尋找機會,勇于嘗試,而且決策時既依靠分析也依靠預感。
 
②Mortgage banks will hire people like Spanish-speaking entrepreneurs to find out who is a good credit risk in the poorer communities.
 
譯文:抵押行會雇傭一些能講西班牙語的這類中介人,來調查較貧困地區中誰的信貸風險最小。
 
“entrepreneur”一詞在一般意義上作“企業家”解,如第①句中即在這層含義上使用,但用語特殊意義上則指“中介人”,是銀行業用語。若不了解該詞的這層專業含義,很容易將第②句譯成“低壓行會雇傭……企業家……”,結果造成想當然的選詞錯誤。
 
下面這幾例中,劃線詞語也都具有一般與特殊含義之分,翻譯時需要抓住其特殊含義,然后考慮選詞:
 
例3 The current US incarnation of overseas end of the former Bell Telephone Corp. has returned to China, joining Japanese and German companies in major high-technology telecommunications manufacturing.
 
譯文:昔日美國貝爾電話公司的海外營業部,如今重整旗鼓,返回中國,與日本和德國公司一起主要從事高技術電信設備的制造。
 
這句中,“end”一詞在商務英語中作“a particular part of a business”解,例如“my partner looks after the advertising end”(我的合伙人負責廣告業務)。此處根據上下文譯作“營業部”。
 
例4 At present, we cannot entertain your count offer, as our price is quite reasonable.
 
譯文:因我們的價格訂得相當合理,故目前不打算考慮貴方的還盤。
 
在外貿書信中,“entertain”常作“consider”解,而非一般意義上的“招待”或“款待”。
 
例5 Here is the payment to satisfy his claim against the insurance company.
 
譯文:這是支付給他向保險公司索賠的償金。
 
句中,“satisfy”的含義相當于“pay”,屬于正規用法,常見于商業文件中。
 
例6 Only those firms that believe they can differentiate their products will be willing to enter the industry.
 
譯文:只有那些認為自己產品與眾不同的公司才樂于從事這一行業經營。
 
“industry”一詞在外貿英語中出現含義較多。翻譯時往往容易將它只同“工業”等同起來,而忽略其他含義。實際上,該詞除作“工業”解外,還用于“行業”、“企業”等含義。如句中即指“a distinct group of productive of profit-making enterprises”,即漢語的“行業”。
 
區別詞的一般和專業含義需要掌握一定的專業知識,這樣處理起來相對容易些。因為處理這類多義詞的關鍵在于理解,熟悉專業有助于辨別所譯之詞在特定專業中的含義,可以更好地避免與其一般含義相混淆。至于漢譯階段的詞義表達,一般說則相對容易些,因為這類詞用在專業文章中,表達的概念大都固定,翻譯時無須引申,因此只要理解正確,漢語用詞 不會有很大出入。但是,如果對所涉及的專業不熟悉或對這類詞的特殊含義比較陌生,理解階段就容易出錯,這種情況下需要格外小心,勤查字典,而不能望“詞”生義。多義詞的專業含義在較為完備的詞典,尤其在專業詞典中一般都有專條列出,只要結合文章內容仔細查閱,找準其位置,理解、翻譯就可以做到準確、恰當。
 
1.2選詞要考慮詞的上下文及其搭配關系
 
在外貿英語中,還有一類詞,其特點是,在使用中詞的絕對意義不變,但因所處上下文不同或與之搭配的詞組不同,翻譯時產生的聯想則不同,處理這類詞往往更需要根據上下文或相鄰詞組的含義來確定譯語。現以“community”一詞為例,該詞一般作“a group of people living together and/or united by shared interests, religion, nationality”解。在下列詞組中,我們可以看到,盡管該詞的上述基本含義不變,但與之搭配詞不同,漢譯用詞就不一樣:
 
world community  (世界大家庭)
 
international community  (國際社會)
 
the European Community  (歐洲共同體)
 
the Atlantic Community  (大西洋集團)
 
the banking community  (金融界人士)
 
對于這類情況,我們選詞有兩點需要注意,一是已經約定俗成的譯語的,如上面的例子以及其他專業術語或專有名稱等,翻譯時可以沿襲現成,一般可不做改動;二是要根據文章內容或相鄰詞組來斟酌譯語的,如下面例句中的劃線詞語,翻譯時必須靈活處理,而不能套用某個漢語對應詞,以不變應萬變地去硬譯。
 
例7 The first phase is to be the setting up of joint venture to make switches—subject to US Government approval of export licenses.
 
譯文:第一階段是建立合資企業以制造交換機——這需要取得美國政府發放的出口許可證。
 
例8 The obligation of each bank to make the loan to be made by it hereunder is subject to the condition.
 
譯文:各銀行貸款的義務需根據下列條件而定。
 
例9 We thank you for your interest in 3 M Company and its products.
 
譯文:感謝貴方對3M公司及其產品的重視。
 
 
 
例10 During his next trip to China, our president will discuss maters of common interest with your managing director.
 
譯文:我們總裁在下次訪華時將與貴方總經理討論共同關心的問題。
 
例11 Under US law, MFN treatment is extended automatically to all market-economy trading partners.
 
譯文:依照美國法律,美國自動給予所有實行時常經濟的貿易伙伴以最惠國待遇。
 
例12 Under the circumstances, we have to lodge claims with you as follows:…
 
譯文:在此情況下,我們只好向你方提出索賠如下:……
 
從上面譯例中可以看到,處理這類詞語的重點在于漢譯階段的詞義表達。選詞時要從原詞的基本含義出發,結合上下文來考慮譯語。如例7、例8句中“subject to”,由基本含義“be ruled by …”出發,考慮漢語的習慣表達,分別選用“要取得……”和“根據……而定”這兩個詞語譯出。第例9、例10句中“interest”,其基本含義為“reading to give attention”,據此則譯作“重視”和“關心”。
 
根據詞的上下文和搭配關系考慮選詞必然會涉及到漢譯階段的詞義引申。下面這些譯例與上述例子比較起來詞義引申的靈活度更大,因而選詞的難度也會相應增加。
 
例13 Let me illustrate the practical reality of co-operation but taking the narrow field of training, or human resource development.
 
譯文:讓我以“培訓”或“人力資源開發”這兩個具體方面為例,來說明合作的可行性。
 
例14 This complicated structure ensures that the Fed’s decisions are broadly based and properly insulated from narrow and partisan interests.
 
譯文:這種復雜結構保證聯邦儲蓄銀行的決策具有廣泛基礎,并完全擺脫狹隘的黨派利益。
 
例15 Japan was the country chairing APEC for 1995.
 
譯文:日本是1995年亞太經濟合作組織的主席。
 
例16 The authorities complain of being short of manpower, and where possible, capital-intensive techniques are introduced.
 
譯文:行政當局因人力匱乏而叫苦不迭。只要可能的話,就引進投資大花錢多的技術設備。
 
在處理詞語翻譯時,有時甚至會碰到無法單獨就詞而譯詞的情況。在這種情況下,要準確、通順地傳達出原詞的含義,只有連同其搭配詞組一起考慮引申。
 
例17 Pricing goods below the competition also exposes a business to pricing wars. Competitors can match the lower price, leaving both parties out in the cold.
 
譯文:將商品價格定價低于競爭對手,還會使企業卷入價格大戰。競爭者會競相壓價,以至于兩敗俱傷。
 
例18 Technology-intensive industries, such as microchip manufacturing and pharmaceuticals should qualify for unilateral action on the part of US in anticipation of multinational agreements later on.
 
譯文:在技術密集型行業,如微電路芯片制造業和制藥業,美國應有條件采取單方面行動,以期日后爭取多國協議的認可。
 
從例17、18看出,雖然從字面上看似乎略譯了原文詞語,實際上,其含義都充分體現出來了。這說明根據上下文和搭配關系考慮選詞時必須靈活掌握,在無法找到漢語對應詞的情況下不能生搬硬譯,而要考慮改換說法將原詞義表達出來,如最后一句,甚至句子結構都要做一調整。
 
選詞時,還有一點需要注意。當句中某個英語詞與不同詞連續搭配使用時,對該詞的處理必須機動靈活,必須照顧漢語的用詞表達習慣,避免不分場合地將一種譯語一用到底而造成譯文表達生硬。
 
例19 After the war, currencies fluctuated widely in terms of gold and, thus, in relation to each other.
 
譯文:戰后,以黃金計算的各國幣值激烈波動,因而互比值也極不穩定。
 
句中,“fluctuate”分別與“in terms of … ”和“in relation to …”搭配使用。翻譯時需按漢語的表達習慣選用“波動”搭配“幣值”,“不穩定”搭配“比值”。
 
例20 Making an image and making an object have become indivisible parts of the design process.
 
譯文:樹立一種形象和制定一個目標已成為設計過程中不可分割的部分。
 
“make”一詞的使用極為靈活,其確切含義往往要根據搭配詞組來定,因此選詞要考慮其與相鄰詞組的關系,找出與漢語搭配方式相符的詞語。這里,“形象”與“樹立”搭配,“目標”與“制定”搭配,符合漢語的表達習慣。
 
例21 The Body shop—good to its employees, its customers, the environment—has pioneered a new kind of corporate culture.
 
譯文:這家保健化妝品商店——善待雇員,體貼顧客,保護環境——創立了一種新的公司文化。
 
句中,“good”一詞也是使用和搭配極為靈活的詞。這里根據其“kind”或“helpful”這一基本含義,分別譯作“善待”、“體貼”、“保護”,以求照顧漢語的搭配習慣。
 
例22 The main reason why many things have not a world market is that they are costly or difficult to transport.
 
譯文:許多商品之所以沒有世界性市場,主要原因在于運費昂貴或運輸困難。
 
例23 China is recovering her true self, drawing lessons both from her own mistakes and from other countries.
 
譯文:中國正在恢復自己的本色,她既從自身錯誤中吸取教訓又從別國那里得到借鑒。
 
這兩句中,例22句“transport”一詞之所以分別譯作“運費”和“運輸”,即是考慮到它與“costly”和“difficult”的搭配關系以及漢語的用詞習慣。例23句中對“draw lessons”的處理,按照漢語的習慣說法,反省自身錯誤一般用“吸取教訓”,而用他人錯誤對照自身則用“借鑒”。
 
1.3選詞考慮抽象概念與具體概念的相互轉換
 
所謂抽象與具體,是指英語中常用抽象詞語表達具體概念,或用具體詞語表達抽象概念的現象。由于英漢兩種語言在用詞上的差異,英語中這樣用詞現象使得翻譯時往往找不到完全對應的漢語詞,因此,為將原詞義準確、通順地表達出來,只有通過轉換,即原文抽象詞語用譯文具體詞語表達,或具體詞語用抽象詞語來表達。
 
1.3.1原文抽象詞語轉換為譯文具體詞語
 
例24 The Australian commercial trip to Beijing will leave in the near future.
 
譯文:訪問北京的澳大利亞商務代表團將在最近動身。
 
例25  The greatest increase in US imports of China goods have been registered in toys and foot-wear.
 
譯文:美國已大量增加從中國進口玩具和鞋襪。
 
例26  Until we have established more clearly your ideas we will plan for three days to cover the discussion on the presentation.
 
譯文:待我們更清楚到了解到貴方的想法后,準備用三天時間討論講解的內容。
 
 
 
例27 Sound-bite journalism and entertainment news have taken over the electronic media.
 
譯文:新聞報道和演藝界短評充斥于電視、廣播節目之中。
 
例28 Information guesswork suggests that the steel output could rise to cover one hundred million tons next year.
 
譯文:熟悉情況的人士猜測說,鋼鐵量在下一年可能超過一億噸。
 
由上述幾例中可以看到,原文中劃線詞語均為抽象詞語,但所表達的卻是具體概念,如“trip”表示“參觀(訪問)之群體”,“foot-wear”表示腳上所著“鞋襪”等一類東西,因此譯成漢語時都要使之具體化。下面例句中的劃線詞語均為可數名詞,但說表達的仍是一類人或一類事物這樣的概括含義,因此漢譯時仍要考慮如何使之具體化。
 
例29 She is a valuable acquisition.
 
譯文:她是這家公司不可多得的人才。
 
例30  In America, Wang computers have become a fixture in offices throughout the country.
 
譯文:在美國,王安公司的電腦已成為全國各地辦公室中的必要設備。
 
例31 Shelton Hotel: convenient to the international business district and all major tourist attractions.
 
譯文:希爾頓飯店:由此抵達商業區及所有主要游覽觀光場所,甚為方便。
 
例32 The bank has authorized $400 million for foreign steel ventures in the last years.
 
譯文:銀行在過去五年中,已經為在國外建設鋼鐵廠撥款四億美元。
 
1.3.2原文具體詞語轉換為譯文抽象詞語
 
例33 Big Board officials camped out on the exchange floor to prevent chaos.
 
譯文:紐約證券交易所的官員日夜守候在交易大廳以防止出現混亂。
 
句中,“Big Board”一詞為證券所的行情牌,是個非常具體的詞,這里代指紐約證券交易所,以具體表達抽象。
 
例34 This project is an economic albatross from the start.
 
譯文:這項工程從一開始就是財政上的負擔。
 
“albatross”(信天翁)一詞源自于英國詩人柯勒律治的作品《古舟子詠》。詩中老水手忘恩負義殺掉信天翁后該鳥即搭在他頸上成為終身累贅。此句中泛指負擔。
 
例35 The bottom line of the problem was that the recession did not show the least sign of bottoming out.
 
譯文:問題的關鍵是經濟衰退未見絲毫好轉的跡象。
 
“bottom line”原指“賬本底線”,轉為“概要”,“基本意思”等抽象含義,這里用抽象詞“關鍵”譯出。
 
例36 The exact terms of setting up a joint venture enterprise in the city remain to be worked out. For this purpose both sides have a great deal of homework to do.
 
譯文:在該市建立合資企業尚有待于制定具體條件。為此雙方還有大量準備工作要做。
 
此句中,“homework”本意為“家庭作業”,這里指為準備會談而進行閱讀和研究文件等,故用“準備工作”譯出。
 
例37 The drawdown came as no great surprise and simply reflected the company’s desperate need to save money.
 
譯文:這次裁減行動并不使人感到意外。它只是反映了公司不得不拼命節約開支的情況。
 
“drawdown”原指水庫或油庫等水位或油位下降,此句中指壓縮人員。
 
Try to translate the following sentences into Chinese.
 
⑴While the plan did promise fewer curbs on imports of telecommunications gear, medicine and medical equipment, it offered no relief for American forest products.
 
⑵The expense was out of all relation to the results.
 
⑶Our company has had business relation with a firm in Stockholm for ten years.
 
⑷Part of the explanation for the manufacturing deficit lies in collapse of the once buoyant Middle East market for French exports.
 
⑸We always dislike refusing requests of any kind from regular customers.
 
⑹In connection with the performance of this Agree-ment, each party shall be responsible for damages caused by his fault to third parties.
 
⑺The policy of industrialization through import substitution generally met with only limited success or with failure.
 
⑻A similar but well-established cloth from India is available locally at 17.5d per yard.
 
⑼Here the exporter's assets (the money due from the overseas buyer) will always match his liability (his foreign currency borrowings).
 
⑽Our unique concept was a response to buyer needs, bringing greater reliability, higher-quality output, exceptional user-friendliness and operational ease.
 
2增加詞語
 
下面分別舉例介紹一下商務英漢翻譯過程中常見的增詞法。增詞法并不是說譯者可以隨心所欲地增加任何詞。一般說來,增加的詞盡管沒有出現在原文字面上,但實際上其意都隱含在原文中。經常使用的增詞法有以下幾種情況:
 
2.1. 根據英文語法要求增詞
 
2.1.1增加需要重復的詞
 
英語句子表達為了簡潔,在語法上常避免重復,在翻譯時為了使中文表達更清楚而需要相應的增加詞即重復省略詞語。
 
⑴重復名詞
 
例1 Please carefully read all the following terms and conditions, which shall govern your use of the software products and attached documentation.
 
譯文:請仔細閱讀下列所有條款和規則,這些條款和規則將指導您如何使用軟件產品和附帶的文件資料。(重復"這些條款和規則")
 
例2 And even if large investment with a 10- year payback period looks difficult, for large companies there are plenty of smaller opportunities which will pay back much quickly.
 
譯文:即使回報期為十年的大規模投資看起來有困難,對大公司來說,仍有許多小規模投資的機會,其回報期將會短得多。(加譯“規模”)
 
⑵重復代詞
 
例3 Banks do no clear parcels addressed to them for account of drawees and the postal authorities may return them to the sender if not cleared 22days after arrival.
 
譯文:郵寄包給銀行,銀行不代付款人辦理清關手續。貨到郵局22天后,郵局可將郵包退給發貨人
 
例4 A bill of lading is usually made out in copies, some in duplicate, some in triplicate and some even in quadruplicate.
 
譯文:提單繕制時,通常是一式幾份,有的是兩份,有的是三份,還有的甚至是四份。
 
例5 Generally we open for customers three kinds of credit. One is documentary letter of credit, another is revolving letter of credit and a third is travelers' letter of credit.
 
譯文:我們通常為客戶開例三種信用證:一種是跟單信用證,另一種是循環信用證,還有一種是旅行信用證。
 
例6 We agree to set up agency relationship between our two banks so that you can transact business directly with the following domestic branches of ours.
 
譯文:我們同意貴我兩行建立代理關系,這樣貴行便可以同我國內(這些)分行直接辦理業務了。
 
例7 It's more expensive than it was last time but not as good .
 
譯文:價格比上次的高,但質量卻比上次的差。(but it's not as good as it was last time)(加譯“卻比上次的差”)
 
2.1.2增加表示時態和復數的詞
 
英語可以通過名詞、動詞的詞形變化來表現時態和復數。英語動詞的時態靠詞形或者加助動詞來表達的。漢語靠增加時態助詞或者一般表示時間的詞。"曾,已經,過了,在,正在,著,將,要,會,便"等。.
 
例8 The agreement will come into force next spring.  譯文:協議將于明年生效。(加譯"將")
 
例9The bargain continued far into the night. 譯文:討價還價一直延續到深夜。(加譯"一直")
 
例10When applying for visas, aliens shall present valid passports and, if necessary provide pertinent evidence.
 
譯文:外國人申請各項簽證,應當提供有效護照,必要時提供有關證明。(加譯"各項")
 
2.2 根據表達邏輯要求增詞
 
有時候英語原文中并沒有表達邏輯關系的詞語,但根據上下文可以判斷出其隱含的邏輯關系,如轉折,假設,讓步,因果關系等,就原文的表達形式來看,邏輯上是通的,但在譯成漢語時,若不加上適當的詞,在邏輯上就顯得欠缺一些。因而,出于漢語邏輯上的考慮,翻譯時必須加上適當的詞,把隱含的意思充分表達出來,使它形式上合乎思維規律,意義上順理成章。
 
例11 Should your price be found competitive and delivery data acceptable, we intend to piece a large order with you.
 
譯文:如你方價格有優惠,交貨期合適,我們打算大量訂購.(加譯表假設的"如")
 
例12 All the multilateral arrangements need to be examined for clauses that restrict the free trade.
 
譯文:對于所有各種多邊安排都必須加以審查,以便研討其中有無限制自由貿易的條款。(加譯對象性的詞"對于")
 
例13 Such an office's activities might be limited to market research, communication, sales and purchasing.
 
譯文:其經營活動多限于市場調查,信息溝通和采購銷售等。(加譯限定性的詞"信息")
 
2.3 根據表達的語義需要增詞
 
增加因語義表達需要的詞,是指為了使譯文表達通順流暢,而根據漢語的表達習慣增加一些詞。經常增加的詞有動詞,名詞和量詞等等。
 
2.3.1增加動詞
 
漢語句子中動詞占優勢,使用的頻率很高。因此,英漢翻譯中經常需要根據上下文的意思添加一些動詞,使譯文表達更加清楚,通順。
 
例14 All cash bonus shall be subject to income tax.
 
譯文:所有現金紅利,均須繳納所得稅。(加譯"繳納")
 
例15 Various departments are in close touch with each other all the time.
 
譯文:各部門相互間一直保持密切接觸。(加譯"保持")
 
2.3.2增加名詞
 
在翻譯過程中為了符合表達習慣,有時可以在某些形容詞前增加名詞。
 
例16 As to direct and indirect exporting, which approach is best depends on such factors as the company's size ,its export volume, the number of foreign countries involved ,the investment required to support the operation, the profit potential, the risk present, and the desires of the overseas buyers.
 
譯文:至于直接出口業務和間接出口業務,哪一種方式最好取決于許多因素,比如,公司的大小、出口數量的多少,公司業務所牽涉的國家的多少,出口所需要投資的多少,可賺利潤的多少,存在風險多少,以及海外買主的要求等。(加譯“業務”和“多少”)
 
例17 The printer is indeed cheap and fine.
 
譯文:這臺打印機真的是物美價廉。(加譯“物品”和“價格”)
 
例18 The leader is not satisfied with our preparation.
 
譯文:領導對我們的準備工作不滿意。(加譯“工作”)
 
例19 These early cars were slow, clumsy, and inefficient.
 
譯文:這些早期的汽車速度緩慢,行動笨拙,效率不高。(加譯"速度 ""行動""效率")
 
例20 Rubber is a light, elastic, durable and water-resistant material, which make rubber industry very important.
 
譯文:橡膠是一種重量輕,彈性好,經久耐用,能夠防水的材料,這就使得橡膠工業十分重要。
 
例21 The purpose of engineering is to create useful goods, to make them better, cheaper, and more abundant.
 
譯文:工程的目的是要創造有用的物品,使它們的質量更好,價格更便宜,數量更充足。
 
例22 The latest type of the TVR system is light, inexpensive and easy to manipulate.
 
譯文:這種最新型的電視錄像裝置重量輕,價格低,而且操作簡便。(加譯"重量,價格")
 
另外,在商務英語中常會碰到一些內涵比較空泛的詞語,這類詞使用域較寬,可以表達概括,籠統的含義,漢譯時需要增加表范疇的名詞,化虛為實,使之具體化。
 
例23 Banks are closely concerned with the flow of money into and out of the economy.
 
譯文:銀行與經濟活動的貨幣流入與流出量有密切關系。(加譯“經濟活動”)
 
例24 The export is not permitted to exceed its limitation.
 
譯文:出口物資不得超過限制范圍。(加譯“出口物資”和“限制范圍”)
例25 Before settling your prices, you must understand your product's market, distribution costs and competition.
 
譯文:定價之前,你必須了解產品市場,分銷成本和競爭情況。(加譯“競爭情況”)
 
例26 Your corporation's representatives asked that additional details be sent to your corporation for future consideration.
 
譯文:貴公司的代表要求我們寄送更為詳細的資料,以便做進一步考慮。(加譯“詳細的資料”)
 
2.3.4增加解釋詞語
 
原文的寓意在上下文中很明確,但如果照字面直譯過來可能會看不明白或產生誤解。這種情況下需要加上一些解釋性詞語,以便將原文中的隱義明確表達出來。
 
例27 This plan with all its disadvantages is considered to be one of the best.
 
譯文:盡管有種種不周全之處,這個計劃仍被認為是最佳計劃之一。(加譯“盡管”和“仍”)
 
例28 The formation of growth triangles is a pragmatic response to regional autarky.
 
譯文:“經濟增長三角區”的形式是對區域性自給自足政策的一種務實的反應。(加譯“經濟”)
 
2.3.5 增加概括詞
 
概括詞是英漢兩種語言所共有的,但有時英語句子中并沒有出現概括詞, 在基本譯文的基礎上加上適當的表示"兩人","雙方","等","等等","凡此種種"等概括詞,其目的是使譯文概念進一步明確,而且可以使上下文的連貫性得到進一步加強。
 
例29 Draft and invoice are different instruments.
 
譯文:匯票和發票是兩種不同的票據。(加譯“兩種”)
 
例30 Like most beverage factories, Baisha Beer Brewery produces and stores enough breweries in the summer and fall when there is a great demand.
 
譯文:與大多數飲料廠一樣,白沙啤酒廠在需求旺盛的夏秋兩季,生產、儲存足夠的啤酒。(加譯“兩季”)
 
2.3.6增加附加含義的詞
 
中文習慣用四字結構表達,為了迎合中文表達習慣,英譯漢時常增加表示附加含義的詞。
 
例31 We have a good assortment of goods to choose from .
 
譯文:本店貨色齊全,花色多樣,任憑挑選。(加譯“花色多樣,任憑”)
 
例32 Carpets made in our company are beautiful and magnificent.
 
譯文:本公司生產的地毯美麗大方,光彩奪目,富麗堂皇。(加譯“光彩奪目,富麗堂皇”)
 
Try to translate the following sentences into Chinese.
 
⑴ When Janpanese companies set out to break into a market, short -term profitability seldom enters the picture.
 
⑵ Heavy-banded interventions in industrial policy generally does not work.It tents to create inefiencies and artificial barriers to wealth.
 
⑶ This would delight most free traders including USA/NAFTA, an advocacy group that has nine CEOs among its members.
 
⑷ In reply to your order of Dec.15, we regret to say that we do not have in stock any such articles as you describe.
 
⑸ The agreement may be reached before or after the occurrence of a dispute.
 
⑹ There are two major ways to develop distributions: direct or indirect.
 
⑺ Imports and exports increased rapidly and there was improvement in the utilization of foreign funds.
 
⑻When applying for visas, aliens shall present valid passports and ,if necessary
 
provide pertinent evidence.
 
⑼The latest type of the TVR system is light, inexpensive and easy to manipulate.
 
⑽Inspect the instrument carefully for damage when removing it from the
 
protective container.
 
⑾As to direct and indirect exporting, which approach is best depends on such
 
factors as the company's size ,its export volume, the number of foreign countries
 
involved ,the investment required to support the operation, the profit potential,
 
the risk present, and the desires of the overseas buyers.
 
⑿This plan with all its disadvantages is considered to be one of the best.
 
⒀When necessary ,party A will provide storage for exhibits and commodities unsold during the fair till their sales or disposal by the Chinese owners.
 
⒁Oriental package company Ltd., a leading packaging manufacturer in china ,provides instruments, equipment, materials ,and services for the package of the products ,particularly for food and chemical products.
 
⒂Before settling your prices ,you must understand your product's market ,distribution costs and competition.
 
3減省詞語
 
由于英漢兩種語言在語法結構,表達方式以及修辭手段上的不同,有些單于或句子成分在英語中是必不可少的,但是搬到譯文中去,就會影響譯文的簡潔和通順。因此在外貿英譯漢的過程中,為了使譯文更加簡練,更符合漢語的表達習慣,需要減省一些可有可無或翻譯后反嫌累贅的詞語。但必須注意,減省不是刪掉原文中的某些內容,在不易略譯的情況下,不要隨便省略。
 
3.1省略表意作用不大或無表意作用的詞語
 
在英語中,有些詞類如冠詞:連詞、介詞、動詞語等,有時在句中只起語法作用而無表意作用或表意作用不大,這類詞在不影響原意的情況下可考慮省略不譯。
 
3.1.1冠詞
 
英語冠詞具有雙重作用。一是用來表示數目或特指事物,具有實義;二是只起到語法作用,如不定冠詞用于泛指而無數量概念,定冠詞只用于限定而非特指,后一種情況漢譯時大多數冠詞可以省略不譯。
 
例1 AT&T will not put a dollar figure on how much it will end up investing.
 
譯文:美國電報電話公司不打算透露它最終要投資多少美元。
 
例2 The purpose of insurance is to provide protection against financial loss at a reasonable cost.
 
譯文:保險的目的是以合理的代價為經濟損失提供保障。
 
例3 A large truth, however, is that recovery for all of these countries require the revival and expansion of world trade.
 
譯文:然而,更重要的事實是,所有這些國家的經濟復蘇都取決于世界貿易的復蘇和擴大。
 
當然,有些習慣短語中的冠詞翻譯時不可隨便省譯,冠詞的有無,其意義會大相徑庭,
 
切不可想當然,比如,out of question(沒問題)與out of the question(不可能)、take place(發生)與take the place(代替)、in control(控制) 與in the control(被控制)等。
 
3.1.2連詞
 
漢語中詞與詞之間的關系主要靠詞序來表達,彼此的邏輯關系是暗含與句序之間,勿需連詞。英語中詞與詞之間的關系,則主要靠連詞來表達。因此在商務英語中英譯漢時在很多情況下都可以省掉連詞。
 
例4 We appreciate your cooperation and book forward to receiving your further orders.
 
譯文:謝謝貴公司合作,希望繼續下定單。
 
例5 We sincerely hope to establish business relations with your company so as to promote trade between our two countries.
 
譯文:我們期盼與貴公司建立貿易關系,發展我們兩國之間的貿易。
 
例6 This offer is firm, subject to your reply which should reach us not later than the end of this month.
 
譯文:此發盤為實盤,以你方在本月底前回復有效。
 
3.1.3介詞
 
商務英語中詞與詞.詞組與詞組之間的關系,通常用連詞和介詞來表示-----實際上介詞用的更頻繁。而漢語卻多用詞序來表示上述關系。因此,在漢譯時,許多介詞跟連詞一樣往往可以省略。
 
例7 Our purposes are to promote cooperation and development by means of information sharing, and to promote mutual prosperity by means of joint development.
 
譯文:我們的目的是通過溝通促進合作發展,通過共同發展促進繁榮。
 
例8Exquisite in structure.Durable in use. 譯文:結構精巧,牢固耐用。
 
例9 We have your name and address from the commercial office of Chinese Embassy in English.
 
譯文:我方從英國中國使館商務辦得知有貴公司的名稱和地址。
 
 
 
例10 We are a state-owned company dealing specially with the export of tablecloth
 
譯文:我方是一個專營桌布出口的國有企業。
 
3.1.4動詞
 
在英語句子中,有些謂語動詞只同具有實意的名詞詞組搭配使用,本身表意作用很小或根本我表意作用,這類動詞漢譯時可以省略不譯,而將名詞(詞組)轉譯為漢語動詞。
 
例11 Delivery must be affected within the time stated on the purchase order.
 
譯文:必須在購貨訂單規定的時間內交貨。
 
例12 The actual date of the completion of the purchase shall coincide with the availability of the new facilities.
 
譯文:到新設備供應時再進貨。
 
例13 A cost lid must always be used in preparing a bid or quoting a job.
 
譯文:在準備為某項工程投標或報價時,必須對成本加以限制。
 
例14 The cessation of the present restriction cannot be made.
 
譯文:目前這些限制尚不能取消。
 
3.1.5代詞
 
下面兩類代詞可以考慮省去不譯。
 
①所有格代詞
 
按照英語語法,在一個句子中,指代前述主語表明所有關系,或指代前述主語表明動作的邏輯主語或賓語關系時,必須跟用與主語一致的所有格代詞,但漢語這方面卻無硬性規定,有時候省略不譯可能更符合漢語的表達習慣。
 
例15 A firm needs to reduce its costs and obtain the best prices possible for the merchandise.
 
譯文:企業需要降低成本,并使商品達到盡可能優惠的價格。
 
 
 
例16 Many small service firms fail to analyze their services' total cost, and therefore fail to price them profitably.
 
譯文:許多小型勞務公司不去分析勞務總成本,因此也無法為服務項目定出有利可圖的價格。
 
例17 New York stock Exchange provides a centrally located place for its members to buy and sell securities.
 
譯文:紐約證券交易所為會員買進買出證券提供了一個集中場所。
 
②第一人稱主格代詞
 
第一人稱主格代詞的省略主要用于翻譯商業信函。按照漢語撰寫商業書信的習慣,開首句和結束語中的第一人稱往往省略不用,因此翻譯時可以考慮省略不譯。
 
例18 We are in receipt of your fax of May 8th, offering us 200,000 yards of Cottons Piece Goods Arts.No.C-342.
 
譯文:茲收到貴方5月8日報盤20萬碼C-342貨號棉布的傳真。
 
例19 We hope you will consider our counter-offer most favorably and fax us your acceptance immediately.
 
譯文:望你方對我方還盤優先考慮,并從速傳真受盤。
 
例20 I enclose herewith a sample. 譯文:現隨函附上樣品一件。
 
3.1.6名詞
 
外貿英語中常常出現充當主語和表語的名詞相同以及充當其它句子成分的名詞相同的情況,漢譯時出于修辭上的需要,往往要省略重復的名詞。此外,有些名詞在英文中是必要的,若譯成中文便成了蛇足,因此也不宜譯出。
 
例21 The company has now 35 representative offices within China and four representatives out.
 
譯文:公司在國內設立了35個、國外4個代表處。
 
例22 Our stocks now include a wide range of first-class personal computers at very attractive prices.
 
譯文:目前,我們可以提供一流的各式各樣的個人電腦,價格非常誘人。
 
 
 
例23 We look forward to the pleasure of your renewed order.
 
譯文:我們期待再次收到你們的訂單。
 
3.2.修辭性省略
 
修辭性省略屬于比較高級的不易掌握的一種翻譯技巧。它是指從譯文的修辭角度考慮,省略掉原文中某些不言而喻,不說自明的詞,或省去原文中某些重復的詞。如果說語法性(結構性)略譯是比較消極的略譯手法,那么修辭性略譯則是積極的略譯手法;前者一目了然,后者則不易把握。下面例子中劃線部分已省譯。
 
例24 Shen Zhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) has served the nation well as a showcase of opening-up a gateway of international exchange, and a power use of economic growth.
 
譯文:深圳經濟特區發揮了很好的窗口作用和輻射作用。
 
例25 Would you kindly quote the cost price for the assembly operation?
 
譯文:請報裝配業務的成本價格。
 
例26 It is comprehensible that owing to the change of mode of trade and terms of payment, some rises in price might be necessary.
 
譯文:由貿易方式和付款條件的改變,報價有所提高是可以理解的。
 
例27 It provides a continuous challenge to bring the buyer and the seller together on terms favorable to each.
 
譯文:它能使買賣雙方以互利條件成交,就要經受不斷的挑戰。
 
3.3略化贅語以符合漢語表達習慣
 
有時候,英語表達某一概念時用詞繁冗,如果照在字面直譯過來,會使譯文變得羅嗦,有損于簡潔,這種情況下省去贅語不譯。
 
例28 He asked the divisions to give their mutual cooperation to the project.
 
譯文:對于這個計劃,他要求各部門給予合作。
 
句中,"mutual cooperation"如照直譯作"相互合作",譯文比較羅嗦。“合作”一詞實際已包含了“相互"的意思。
 
例29 We must bring forward a new design at the earliest possible date.
 
譯文:我們必須盡早拿出一項新的設計方案。
 
例30 Please give us a definite reply at your earliest convenience.
 
譯文:請盡早給予我們確定的答復。
 
這兩句中,原文劃線部分都可以簡化的譯作”盡早“。如果譯作“在您可能的最早時間內”和“在您可能的最方便時候”就破壞了漢語公文用詞簡潔的特點。
 
3.4同義詞或近義詞并譯
 
英語同漢語比較,前者表達某些概念時要比后者具體、細致,譬如“廣告”,英語中有“advertisement"表示文字廣告和”commercial"表示電視插播廣告之分,而漢語則無此區別,因此遇到原文中有這類詞語連用時,根據同義相并的原則可以考慮并譯。
 
例31 On the other hand, advertisements and commercials do many important things for society: They covey business information, facilitate communication and help keep the business world moving.
 
譯文:另一方面,廣告也為社會做了許多重要工作:傳遞商品信息,便于相互溝通并促進商界得以正常運作。
 
例32 The wages, salaries or their legitimate income earned by the foreign staff and workers of contractual joint ventures after the payment of individual income tax ac according to law, may be remitted abroad.
 
譯文:合資企業外籍員工的工資和其他合法收入,依法交納個人所得稅后,可以匯往國外。
 
例33 The majority of stockholders are in complete sympathy with the company's goals and objectives in regard to the construction of a new plant.
 
譯文:大多數股東完全贊同公司創建新工廠的目標。
 
例34 Your pricing structure and policy are major components of your public image and are crucial to securing and keeping your clients.
 
譯文:你的定價結構及措施是你在公眾形象中的主要組成部分。對招攬顧客起著至關重要的作用。
 
有一點需要注意,運用相并原則必須以忠實為前提,不能只為追求譯文的簡潔而損害原文含義。
 
例35 Such capital is accumulated by a deliberate policy of saving surpluses. This policy may be personal and individual or may be personal and individual or may be public and collective.
 
譯文:這樣的資本是通過貯存盈余的審慎辦法積累起來的。這種措施也許是私人性質的,屬于個人所為,也許是公共性質的,屬集體所為。
 
句中兩部分劃線詞語都不宜采用并譯辦法處理,這是因為“personal”和“public”是講資本積累的性質,“individual ”和“collective”則是指資本積累的行為主體,所以漢譯時必須加以區別。
 
Try to translate the following sentences into Chinese.
 
⑴Upon inspection,it was found that the total content of the order had been short-delivered by 21 tons.
 
⑵The project is under discussion.
 
⑶Since 2008 we have been awarded by ministry, province and municipality many times.
 
⑷It would be highly appr3eciated if you could look into the execution of our order dated March 9 for 15 cartons of electronic components,which should have reached our destination two weeks ago.
 
⑸In the early 1980s, manufacturers in Japan and the Asian “Four Tigers” moved their factories to the places where cheap labour was available.
 
⑹It would be very much appreciated if you could confirm the shipping arrangement as soon as possible.
 
⑺These are the equipment and components to be delivered to Iran for the Tehran metro project.
 
⑻The parties understand and agree that law of china will be applied to interpreter the contract.
 
⑼If shipment is delayed because the buyer fails to furnish such proof timely, the seller will not be deemed to have breached the contract.
 
⑽The buyer will be responsible for obtaining import license issued by the appropriate agency of USA government; the seller will be responsible for obtaining export license issued by the appropriate agency of China government.
 
⑾A party must notify the other party in writing of any change in address within 90 days of the effective date of the change.
 
⒀If the delay in delivery results because of the seller's efforts to comply with particular specifications supplied by the buyer, the buyer will not have a right to cancel the contract.
 
⒁We confirm your order received on Jan.6th.2004 for the following goods.
 
4詞序調整
 
詞序就是詞或短語在句中的排列順序。詞序的排列既受到語法規則的制約,也取決于修辭的需要。這方面,英語和漢語有很大的不同,因此翻譯過程中,完全不變動詞序即能譯得準確、恰當的情況并不多見。多數情況下要對原詞序做些改動并根據情況重新組織,才能夠保證譯文的通順、規范、才能不致產生誤解。例如翻譯“the first head of the Trade Delegation of Australia to be received in China”這一短語,譯作“中國將接待的第一位澳大利亞貿易代表團團長”和譯作“中國將接待的澳大利亞第一位貿易代表團團長”,意思不大相同,后者就容易使人誤解為是“澳大利亞的首位……團長”。再如“a good deep-water harbor”這個短語,如照原詞序譯作“良好的深水港”就不如調整詞序后譯作“深水良港”來得簡潔、地道。可見,詞序調整在翻譯中并非是可用可不用的技巧,詞序要不要調整以及如何調整,往往關系到譯文表達是否清楚、簡潔。
 
就外貿英語而言,因修辭需要而改變詞序的現象并不像文學英語那樣頻繁多見,因此翻譯中涉及修辭方面的詞序調整問題并不十分突出。外貿英語翻譯中所要注意的,主要是屬性關系上的詞序,即單詞、短語作定語和狀語的位置問題,需要了解其排列順序的主要特點,以及翻譯中如何根據漢語排列規則做出恰當調整。一般說來,無論英語還是漢語,屬性關系上的詞序排列都有一定規則可循。我們通過對比,認識兩種語言在這方面的差異,找出帶有規律性的東西并自覺地運用在實踐中。另一方面,由于詞序也受慣用法的影響,例外情況不少,所以調整詞序還要注意靈活處理。
 
4.1定語詞序調整
 
⑴英語中,有些單詞或短語作定語時是可以置于被修飾語之后的,如以-able或-ible結尾的形容詞(短語);表示時間、地點的副詞;不定式短語;分詞(短語);介詞短語等,但漢語中則不存在這樣的情況,翻譯時一律放在被修飾語之前。
 
例1 The accountant can develop the entire system most suitable for your business needs.
 
譯文:會計師可以編制出最適合生意上需要的一整套會計制度。
 
例2 The rate charged is less than that for almost any other type of loan available to consumers.
 
譯文:支付的利息低于消費者可以得到的幾乎任何其他貸款的利息。
 
例3 How much cash is tied up in accounts receivable and for how long?
 
譯文:有多少現金滯留在應收賬戶上?滯留多少?
 
 
 
例4 The strong dollar abroad has reduced American exports and increased imports.
 
譯文:國外美元堅挺已使美國出口下降,進口增加。
 
例5 From the Survey Report issued by the Commodity Inspection Bureau here, you will see that there is a shortage of 868 kilos.
 
譯文:由此處商品檢驗局出具的檢測報告中可知短重868公斤。
 
例4、5句中,做定語的副詞“abroad”,“here”分別置于被修飾語之后,但應注意放在這個位置上的副詞有時并非都是定語,而有可能是修飾動詞的狀語,例如“The EEC today is seeking stable and diversified supplies of energy, raw materials and nonferrous metals.”這句中,“today”是時間狀語,所以應譯作“歐洲共同體目前正從各方面尋求能源、原材料和有色金屬的穩定供應。”而不能譯作“目前的歐洲共同體……。”
 
例6 In the direct overseas trade, any changes in import duties are considered to be the importer’s risk.
 
譯文:在這種直接的對外貿易中,進口稅則的任何改變,其風險均由進口商承擔。
 
例7 We reserve the right to claim compensation from you for the loss.
 
譯文:我們保留對貴公司要求賠償損失的權利。
 
②英語中,有兩個或兩個以上單詞置于中心詞前共同修飾一個名詞時,基本排列順序依次為:①冠詞或所有格代詞(名詞);②數量;③時間、地點;④.泛指性形容詞;⑤表大小、長短、高低形容詞;⑥表形狀形容詞;⑦表年齡、新舊形容詞;⑧.表顏色形容詞;⑨.分詞;⑩.復合形容詞等
 
這里需要說明一點,上面這種排列順序只是一個基本規則,實際應用中這種完全羅列在中心詞之前的情況幾乎不會出現,其中許多成分都可以借助不同語法手段置于中心詞之后,如名詞后置可以加介詞;形容詞、分詞后置可以看作是定語從句的省略等等。另外,按照英語語法規則,不定式做修飾語時不能像分詞一樣前置,但是就其功能而言可以歸入分詞一類,因此不定式做后置定語時仍按分詞的位置對待,以便翻譯時調整漢語餓詞序。
 
漢語修飾語的排列順序依次為:
 
①領屬性定語;②.時間、地點定語;③.指示性形容詞、數詞;④修飾性定語;⑤表性質、類屬定語.。
 
例7 The higher IMF estimates may be better yard-sticks of economic progress.
 
譯文:國際貨幣基金組織的較高的估計可能是衡量經濟進步的比較科學的標準。
 
“IMF”中文是“國際貨幣基金組織”是領屬性定語,“higher”“較高的”是修飾性定語,按照中文表達習慣,領屬性定語在前,修飾性定語在后,因而,需要調整。
 
例8 The solution is to globalize major Australian corporations.
 
譯文:解決辦法就是將澳大利亞的主要公司推向全球。
 
例9 Bank bonds are also popular because they have a short maturing and are currently offering an interest rate of 20% more than the average bank deposit rates.
 
譯文:銀行債券也頗受歡迎,因為期限短,利率也高于銀行的平均存款利率。
 
例10 Sharp oil-price declines caused countries in the region to scale back mega-engineering projects.
 
譯文:石油價格的劇跌使得該地區的國家壓縮大的工程項目。
 
⑶英語中,如果中心詞既有前置形容詞,又有后置介詞短語共同修飾,漢譯時可考慮后置定語與被修飾的關系,參考漢語的基本順序排列。
 
例11 The OPEC countries have decided to impose a surcharge on the oil price for the fourth quarter.
 
譯文:歐佩克成員國已決定對第四季度油價征收附加費。
 
例12 We allow a trade discount of 35% and a special discount of 5% on orders received on or before 31st May.
 
譯文:對在5月31日或在此之前收到的訂單,我們給予35%的貿易折扣和5%的特扣。
 
例13 Financial checking and examination of the joint venture company shall be conducted by an auditor registered in China.
 
譯文:合資企業的財務審查、稽核由在中國注冊的會計師完成。
 
例14 A favourable decision is needed on most favoured nation trading status for China.
 
譯文:需要就延長中國的貿易最惠國地位問題做出有利決定。
 
上面四句中的后置定語前移,是根據漢語修飾語的排列順序調整的。如例11句中“for…”表示領屬;例14句中“most favoured nation trading state for China”實際上可以看作是一個固定詞語,但“for China”從邏輯關系上看處在漢語的限定性定語位置上,意為“給中國的……”,按照漢語習慣表達,譯作:“中國的…”,結構上與表領屬關系的譯法相同。另外有一種情況,如果中心詞前有所有格限定,漢譯時則可以不加調整,因為英語中所有格相當于漢語的領屬關系,都處于最前面,如:
 
例15 In reply to your order of December 15, we regret to say that we do not have in stock any such articles as you describe.
 
譯文:就貴公司12月15日的訂單,茲回復,貴公司所述的那種貨物現無貨可供,甚為遺憾。
 
例16 We also appreciate your friendly words about the relations between our two countries.
 
譯文:我們也贊賞您就我們兩國關系所做的友好講話。
 
例17 It is the world’s outstanding example of self-reliance.
 
譯文:這是全世界自力更生的杰出榜樣。
 
⑷英語中,如果中心詞有前置定語,又有分詞短語或不定式短語作后置定語,漢譯時后置分詞后不定式短語在前移后處于限定性定語的位置上,而前置定語位置則要視情況來確定。
 
例18 APEC too will face different problems arising from growing up.
 
譯文:亞太經濟合作組織也將面臨發展過程中出現的各種問題。
 
例19 For one reason or another, all countries impose trade barriers on certain goods crossing their bourder.
 
譯文:由于各種原因,所有國家對某些過境商品都設有貿易壁壘。
 
例20 The China Europe International Business School of Shanghai is a business school run on Western line and Funded in large part by Western companies.
 
譯文:上海中歐國際商學院是一所按西方思路設計并大部分由西方公司贊助的商業學校。
 
例21 AT&T became the fourth foreign company to join in the vast task of modernizing China’s telecommunications system.
 
譯文:美國電話電報公司已成為承擔使中國通信系統現代化這個巨大任務的第四家公司。
 
例18句譯文中,“發展過程中出現的”置于“各種”之前,是因為后者是修飾性定語。例19句中,“過境”置于“某些”之后,是因為后者處于指示代詞的位置。例20句中,“商業”為性質、類屬定語,所以緊貼被修飾語。例21句中,“第四家”屬于數字范圍,本應置于前面,但按照漢語的修辭習慣,修飾語越短越靠近被修飾語,所以置于最后。
 
4.2狀語次序調整
 
就外貿英語翻譯而言,英語和漢語在狀語上的差異主要表現在三個方
 
面:
 
①英語句子中的副詞,尤其表示程度和方式副詞,修飾動詞時,其位置可在動詞之前后之后,翻譯時按照漢語順序一般放在動詞之前,有時候也可以加“得”置于動詞之后,但就漢語語法成份來說,“得”后面的成份已不再是狀語而是補語了。
 
例22 We will regret very much if you insist on canceling the contract.
 
譯文:如果你方堅持撤消合同,我們將深感遺憾。
 
例23 We sincerely hope that the parties concerned would be able to negotiate amicably for a solution.
 
譯文:我們真誠地希望有關各方面友好協商以求解決。
 
例24 The productive methods are now being used most widely in the aircraft industry.
 
譯文:這種生產方法目前在航空制造業中使用得最為廣泛。
 
例25 Yesterday’s negotiation went smoothly. 譯文:昨天的談判進行得很順利。
 
②英語中有些副詞如“however”,“therefore”,“though”,“then”等以及一些介詞短語如“according to”,“after all”,“on the other hand”,其位置可以在句首,也可以為插入語置于句中,比較靈活,但漢譯時則一律置于句首:
 
例26 Long term, however, Thailan may have to give way to Indonesia as ASEAN’s most popular tourist destination.
 
譯文:但是從長遠來看,泰國作為東盟最受歡迎的旅游勝地的地位可能要讓位于印度尼西亞。
 
例27 More recently, though, IBM’s dominance of the computer market has slipped.
 
譯文:不過,近些年來國際商用機器公司在電腦市場上的統治地位下降了。
 
例28 In the private sector, after all, France has clearly demonstrated its ability to produce global leaders.
 
譯文:畢竟,法國已明顯地表現出它有能力在私有部門中產生全球性的企業領袖。
 
例29 The supply of money, on the other hand, is the actual amount in notes and coins available for business purposes.
 
譯文:另一方面,貨幣供應量是可供交易使用的紙幣和硬幣的實際數量。
 
例30 These American investors do not know how to stop the automatic payment, according to Dr. Goodman, so the mutual funds continue to benefit by millions of dollars.
 
譯文:按照古德曼博士的觀點,這些美國投資者不知道如何中止自行支付,因此互惠基金仍能從數百萬美元中繼續受益。
 
③英語中,如果有幾個狀語出現,一般是方式狀語在地點狀語之前,地點狀語在時間狀語之前,而且有兩個或兩個以上的時間或地點狀語同時出現時,通常是單位越小越在前,單位越大越在后。漢語的基本順序是時間狀語在地點狀語之前,地點狀語在方式狀語之前,如有多個時間、地點狀語時,單位越大越在前,越小越在后。翻譯時需要根據這些差異進行調整。
 
例31 Shipment of the goods shall start in New York after 2 months commencing from the date of down payment and be completed within 3 months.
 
譯文:貨物在交付定金之日起兩個月后開始由紐約發運,并在三個月內完成。
 
 例32 Party A shall pay the entire cost of the machinery but delivering the products as a make-up payment, and pay it off within a period of 3 years.
譯文:甲方將在三年內以商品形式償付全部機械價款。
 
 例33 The sample is to be sent to you by airmail in 2 days. 譯文:樣品將于兩天后空郵寄贈。
 
例34This contract signed on 5 March, 2005, by and between China Textiles Import and Export Corporation on one hand India Textiles Import and Export Corporation on the other hand.
 
譯文:本合同由中國紡織品進出口公司公司為一方和印度紡織品進出口公司另一方于2005年3月5日簽訂。
 
 詞序排列和調整在實際應用比較靈活,也比較復雜。究竟如何調整,除了掌握其一般規律外,主要根據內容依靠邏輯的推理,盡量避免可能的誤解和不規范的表達方式。
 
 Try to translate the following sentences into Chinese.
 
⑴From our discussions, you may know our endorsers are very interested to have from you some literature on the application of your engineering plastics.
 
⑵Publicity has to do with monitoring the product’s or company’s image with the relevant public.
 
⑶The retailer is the most expensive link in the chain of distribution.
 
⑷A corporation is a legal entity—an artificial legal “person”— created on the approval of the appropriate governmental authority.
 
⑸Compared with telex, a fax machine has the advantage of sending and receiving an exact copy of any image-typescript, handwriting, drawings or photographs.
 
⑹Third, continuous or long-term dumping is a persistent practice which usually is done.
 
⑺The main purpose of documentations to provide a specific and complete description of the goods for the sake of import duty.
 
⑻WTO is one of the three most important international organizations related to economy and trade.
 
 5詞語反譯
 
反譯是相對于正譯而言的一種翻譯方法。所謂“反”就是從反面表達。例如下面這句話:
 
Much to your disappointment the replacement of the goods with flaws is above me.
 
從正面著筆可譯作:
 
太讓你失望了,要求替換有瑕疵產品超過我的能力。
 
也可以從反面著筆處理:
 
太讓你失望了,我無權替換有瑕疵產品。
 
一般說來,我們譯詞時多以正譯為主,即以肯定譯肯定或以否定譯否定的方法處理。但從正面翻譯并非在任何時候都能行得通。英語中有不少詞語,如只從正面翻譯就可能根本無法下筆,或者譯出來也相當勉強,很難達到既確切又通順的效果。這種情況下,考慮從反面著筆,即以肯定譯否定或以否定譯肯定的方法處理,則可能譯得非常順手。可見,反譯法與正譯法一樣也是需要掌握的一種技巧。
 
從外貿英語翻譯實踐中看,有兩種情況可考慮采用反譯法來處理:
 
5.1從正面下筆無法譯出的詞語
 
由于兩種語言用詞上的差異,英語中有些詞語,或以肯定詞形表達否定或排除含義,或加“de-”,“dis-”,“un-”,“-less”等否定詞頭或詞尾表達肯定含義或與“not”連用卻表達肯定含義等詞語,翻譯時往往找不到完全對等的漢語詞,這種情況下可以考慮采用反譯法處理。
 
5.1.1以否定譯肯定:
 
例1 After the ship unloads at Tiburg Dock, the goods will go to the container freight station.
 
譯文:船在蒂爾堡碼頭卸貨后,貨物將送入集裝箱貨運站。
 
 例2 Brokers fielded frantic calls from investors in various stages of disbelief and agony.
 
譯文:經紀人現場回答投資者打來的萬分激動的電話,這些投資者都處于不同程度的懷疑和痛苦之中。
 
 例3 The factory is now unprovided with the techniques necessary for the manufacturing of the product.
 
譯文:工廠目前缺乏制造這種產品所需的技術。
 
 例4 A single market will result in many sweeping changes to the European economy, not least the creation of large companies.
 
譯文:單一市場將導致歐洲經濟產生許多決定性的變化,尤其是導致更大公司的建立。
 
 5.1.2以肯定譯否定:
 
例5 In your eagerness to secure profits, you have failed to give due consideration to the sellers’ standpoints.
 
譯文:也許貴公司由于求利心切而未能適當考慮賣方的立場。
 
 例6 In the absence of a settlement through negotiation, the case under dispute can be submitted to arbitration.
 
譯文:如果通過談判找不到解決辦法,爭議之事可提交仲裁。
 
例7 According to the stipulation of the contract, the powder should be free of foreign substances.
 
譯文:按合同規定,這種粉末不應混有異物。
 
 例8 Your requirement for 5000 MT of sugar is more than what we can supply.
 
譯文:貴公司所需5000噸食糖,我們無法提供。
 
 例9 In this case, we were compelled to cancel the contract, rather lodging a penalty against you.
 
譯文:在此情況下,我方被迫撤約而未向貴方提出罰款。
 
5.2從正面下筆難以譯得確切、通順的詞語
 
英語中還有些詞語雖然可以正面來譯,但譯出來卻很勉強,難以達到確切、通順、簡潔的效果,這種情況下可以考慮采用反譯法處理。
 
5.2.1以否定譯肯定:
 
例10 APEC will have to be non-discriminatory and it will have to seek to be open rather than closed in its approach.
 
譯文:亞太經濟合作組織必須一視同仁,并且態度上必須是開放的而非封閉的。
 
 例11 Since this pricing strategy (pricing below competitors) reduces the profit margin per sale, a firm needs to reduce its costs and locate the business in an inexpensive location or facility.
 
譯文:由于這種定價策略(定價低于競爭對手)降低了每次銷售的利潤,公司需要將企業設在開銷較低的地點或場所。
 
5.2.2以肯定譯否定:
 
例12 By the early 1990, it will be a highly electronic information-intensive society, blurring the division between home and service.
 
譯文:到20世紀90年代初,這個社會將成為一個高度電子化和信息密集型的社會。那時在家辦公和在外辦公的差別就不那么明顯了。
 
 例13 But even though Japan now has a larger surplus with the region than with either the US or Europe, Asia is likely to receive less attention.
 
譯文:不過,即使日本對亞洲地區的貿易順差比美國或歐洲大,但該地區仍可能是不大引人注意的地區。
 
 例14 The managing director doubted the desirability of a negotiation to be held at this time.
 
譯文:總經理認為此時舉行談判并無必要。
 
 例15 Developed countries are still in the grip of recession and a developing nation may face retaliation.
 
譯文:發達國家目前仍未擺脫經濟衰退,因此發展中國家可能會面臨報復。
 
 例16 An investment in money market fund has tied up the money until end of the term of the in vestment.
 
譯文:投資于貨幣市場基金的資金到投資期滿之前是不能動用的。
 
從采用反譯法處理詞語翻譯的兩種情況看,第一種情況比較簡單。這是因為歸入這一類中的詞語基本上已有固定表達法,無論以肯定譯否定,還是以否定譯肯定,大都可在詞典上找到相應譯法,因此翻譯時只要勤查詞典問題并不難解決。第二種情況相對要復雜些,因為歸入這一類中的詞語大都在詞典中找不到現成答案,其中否定譯肯定要比肯定譯否定更難,需要在準確理解的基礎上加以引申,如例12句中“blur the division”(模糊界線)引申為“差別不明顯”,例14句中“doubt the desirability”(懷疑……必要性)引申為“認為……不必要”。例16句中“tie up the money”(凍結資金)引申為“資金不能動用”等都屬于這種情況。因此處理這類詞語時,除了借助于詞典搞清楚詞的基本含義外,很大程度上要依靠上下文來改換說法。
 
再有一點需要說明的是,在處理詞語翻譯時,除了上述兩種情況有必要采用反譯法處理外,大多數情況下,采用正譯還是反譯完全根據個人的行文習慣和愛好來決定,如本節開頭的例句,采用正譯和反譯同樣正確、可行。但有時候正譯與反譯在語氣上可能有些細微的差別,如:
 
例17 The price is not unacceptable.  譯文:此價并非不可以接受。
 
【比較】此價可以接受。
 
前者表達的語氣比后者弱。
 
例18 It will not be impossible for us to sell another cargo of Crude Oil to you in the second half of this year.
 
譯文:我們在今年下半年再供貴方一船原油并不是不可能的事。
 
【比較】我們在今年下半年有可能再供貴方一船原油。
 
前者表達的語氣較后者更委婉,所含可能性更小些。這一點我們在運用反譯法時也應該注意。
 
 Try to translate the following sentences into Chinese.
 
⑴The leakage was attributed to the sellers’ failure to effect shipment according to the packing terms as stipulated in the contract.
 
⑵A lack of awareness of cultural differences or local customs can create selling problems.
 
⑶We very much regret that the current general slackness of the market has prevented us from placing new orders with you.
 
⑷In going-rate pricing, the company bases its prices largely in competitors’ prices, with less attention paid to cost or demand considerations.
 
⑸So far, experts have had about the same degree of success as stock-market forecasters, which is to say they do badly.
 
⑹t is not uncommon to find that a firm literally has lost its entire operating profit for the year in exchange losses.
 
⑺We shall be thankful to you if you can offer us your prime interest rate.
 
 6 詞類轉換
 
詞類轉譯是翻譯中經常用的技巧,英語和漢語的結構是有很大區別的,在外貿英譯漢過程中,有些句子可以逐詞的對譯,有些句子則由于漢英兩種語言的表達方式不同,就不能一對一的方法來逐詞對譯,如果死摳原詞的詞性,那么譯文難免有時顯得生硬,甚至引起誤解。在忠實原文的前提下,原文中有些詞在譯文中需要轉換詞類,才能使英語譯文通順自然,就外貿英語而言,詞類轉譯的情況歸納起來有以下四種:
 
6.1轉譯為動詞
 
英語和漢語比較起來,漢語中動詞用得比較多,這是一個特點,往往在英語句子中只有一個謂語,而在漢語中卻可以幾個動詞或動詞性結構連用。漢語沒有詞形變化,但可以幾個動詞或動詞性結構連用。漢語沒有詞形變化,但可以幾個動詞連用。因此,英語中不少詞類(尤其是名詞、介詞、形容詞和副詞)。在漢譯是往往可以轉譯成動詞。
 
6.1.1名詞轉譯成動詞
 
英語和漢語的一個顯著差異在于英語呈靜態,漢語成動態,英語少用動詞,多用名詞等其它詞性,漢語多用動詞,在外貿英語中,名詞在翻譯中常常譯成動詞,
 
例1 In the event of premature termination of this contract the Contract Appendices shall like wise terminate.
 
譯文:如果合同提前終止,各合同附件也隨之終止。(這里的termination 譯成漢語動詞“終止”)
 
 例2 The buyer is required to sign and return one copy of this Sales Confirmation immediately after receipt of the same.
 
譯文:買方于收到銷售確認書后立即簽名并返還一份。(“receipt”譯成漢語動詞“收到”)
 
 例3 It’s our great honor that talented people can come.
 
譯文:各位優秀人士蒞臨本公司,我們深感榮幸。(“honor”譯成“深感榮幸”)
 
 例4 In view of the insignificant volume of business between our two banks, we consider that it is premature to open a US dollar account with you.
 
譯文:鑒于我們兩行之間的業務量不大,我們認為在貴行開列美元賬戶的條件尚未成熟。(“premature”譯成“尚未成熟”)
 
 例5 Payers usually delay payment or acceptance of bills until the arrival and unloading of the goods.
 
譯文:付款人通常要等到貨物到達并卸下以后才付款或者承兌匯票。(“payment or acceptance”譯成“付款或者承兌”)
 
6.1.2介詞轉譯成動詞
 
外貿英語中介詞的使用范圍也非常廣泛,因此,在漢英互譯過程中,漢語的很多動詞可轉譯為英語的介詞或介詞短語,而英語中的一些介詞也相應地譯成漢語的動詞或動詞詞組,在商務英語有大量介詞使用,如:at sight (見票即付),above quote (超過配額)等,above譯成了動詞的“超過”。又如:
 
例6 We would like to inform you that hardware products fall within the scope of business activities of ABC Corporation, to which we have already forwarded your inquiry for attention.
 
譯文:茲告你方,中國五金產品 屬ABC公司經營范圍,我方將你方詢價函件交其辦理
 
在上例句中沒有使用conduct, handle , deal with 之類的詞語,而使用介詞短語for attention來表達動詞含義。
 
 例7 We are in the market for electric saw.
 
譯文:我們銷售電話的電鋸。(這里“in the market”來表達動詞含義“銷售”)
 
 例8 Customer may be told that the store is out of the product or it isn’t any good.
 
譯文:顧客可能被告知這種商品已經售完或根本不值得一買。(這里介詞“ out  of ”漢譯為“售完”)
 
6.1.3形容詞轉譯為動詞
 
英語中有不少形容詞是由動詞加后綴構成的,即所謂動詞的同源形容詞.如"reckon- reckonable. create-creative.等這些形容詞,特別是表示心理狀態或精神的形容詞在系動詞后面作表語時,往往可以轉譯為動詞,如:confident , certain , ignorant , afraid , aware , concerned , glad , sorry , delighted , thankful , anxious等。
 
例9 He is utterly ignorant of the US, how can we expect him to enlarge the market for our product there?
 
譯文:他對美國情況一無所知,怎么能指望他去擴大我們產品在那里的銷路呢?
 
(這里"ignorant"漢譯成動詞"一無所知")
 
 例10 The home office was to totally unaware of the sales push and no plans to ship the product,
 
譯文:總公司根本不知道這項促銷活動,因而沒有裝運該產品的計劃。(這里"unaware"漢譯成動詞"不知道"。)
 
例11 We are sorry, however, that our tinned fruit products are in great demand at the moment.
 
譯文:然而,我們感到遺憾的是,目前對我們罐裝水果產品需求甚殷。
 
(“sorry ” 這里轉譯為動詞“遺憾的是”)。
 
此外,現在分詞與系動詞連用時也往往轉譯為漢語動詞。
 
 例12 This sort of beverage is refreshing and nourishing.
 
譯文:這種飲料提神,養人。(這里" refreshing"和 "nourishing轉譯為動詞"提神,養人"。)
 
6.1.4副詞轉譯成動詞
 
外貿英語中副詞的使用也比較頻繁,在商務英語翻譯中,有些英語副詞可以譯成漢語的動詞。
 
例13 Unfortunately , in  common with other suppliers ,our prices have risen sine you placed an order with us two years ago.
 
譯文:不幸的是,和其他的供應商一樣,自從你2年前向我們訂購后,我們的價格已經上漲。
 
(這里“unfortunately”轉譯為動詞“不幸的是”)。
 
例14 Frankly, we have no commodity in our stock.譯文:坦白地說,我公司沒有倉存商品。 (這里“Frankly,”轉譯為動詞“坦白地說”)
 
6.2轉譯成名詞
 
漢語表達中動詞多,而英語名詞多,因此,英譯漢時把英語名詞及其詞組譯成漢語動詞,可使譯文更為簡潔、緊湊。英語使用名詞表達漢語中動詞的動作概念,還排除了漢語多用人稱作主語造成的遺留,語句意義因而更加含蓄。
 
6.2.1動詞轉化為名詞
 
在翻譯過程中有如下兩種情況可以考慮將英語轉譯為名詞.
 
(1)由于表達方式的不同,英語中有些動詞如"aim at ,behave, impress, target"等,在漢語中往往找不到對應動詞,因而漢譯時要轉換成名詞來表達。
 
例15 However, the negotiation which were begun in London in 1994 and aimed at setting up a  world trade organization failed because the US held that they were in conflict with it’s domestic law .
 
譯文:然而,1946年開始在倫敦舉行的談判,目標在于建立一個世界性的貿易組織,但是卻未取得成功,因為美國認為這些談判與其國內法律相抵觸。(此句中“aim at”轉換為名詞“目標在于”)
 
例16 Our product is characterized by flexibility and durability.
 
譯文:我方產品特點就是使用靈活、經久耐用。(這里 "characterized"漢譯為名詞"特點")
 
(2)英語還有一些動詞,雖然可以用對應的漢語動詞直接翻譯,但轉換為名詞來譯可能更易于行文,而且比用動詞更具有強調意味。
 
例17 For the last 25 years the US Federal Government has spent more than it had taken in.
 
譯文:過去25年中,美國聯邦政府的支出大于收入。(句中“spent”“ taken in”分別譯成名詞“支出”“收入”)
 
例18 Even today the American dollar is technically "backed” by the store of gold which the US government maintains.
 
譯文:甚至今日,美元從技術角度上講是一美國政府擁有的黃金為"后盾的"。(backed 也可譯成動詞“支持”。)
 
6.2.2形容詞轉化為名詞
 
在外貿英語翻譯過程中,有些英語形容詞可以譯成漢語名詞。
 
例19 We think that television is different from radio in that it sends and receives a picture.
 
譯文:我們認為,電視和無線電的區別在于電視發送和接收的是圖像。(“different”在原文中是形容詞,翻譯成漢語時變成名詞)
 
例20 At a constant price, the supply of commodity is positively proportional to its profit.
 
譯文:價格不變,剛一類商品的供應數量與其所獲利潤成正比例。(“proportional”在原文中是形容詞,翻譯成漢語時變成名詞。)
 
例21 After a few months, our just-in-time system became so efficient.
 
譯文:幾個月后,我們的“準時供貨”的方法變得很有成效。(“efficient”在原文中是形容詞,翻譯成漢語時變成名詞。)
 
6.2.3副詞轉化為名詞
 
有些外貿英語副詞可翻譯成中文的名詞。
 
例22 However,in view of our long and mutually beneficial relationship.
 
譯文:但鑒于貴我雙方長期互惠關系。(這里”mutually”譯成“雙方”)
 
例23 This is currently a particularly serious problem for us in view of the difficult economic climate.
 
譯文:在目前經濟氣候不佳和利率高升環境下。(在這里”currently”譯成漢語名詞“目前”。)
 
例24 Actually, it isn’t, we would like a free sample and some booklet.
 
譯文:事實并非如此,我們想得到一些免費的樣品和一些小冊子。(這里”actually”譯成漢語名詞“事實”。)
 
6.3轉譯成形容詞
 
6.3.1副詞轉譯成形容詞
 
例25 You’ll be impressed by their practical and beautiful design, and more important of all the surprisingly reasonable prices.
 
譯文:您會對它們實用而又漂亮的設計留下深刻印像,而更重要的是令人驚詫的合理價格。(surprisingly”譯成形容詞“令人驚詫的”)
 
例26 Our prices will compare very favorably with those of any of our competitors.
 
譯文:我們公司的價格比較便宜。(這里“favorably”譯楊形容詞“便宜”)
 
6.3.2名詞轉化為形容詞
 
英語名詞組轉譯為形容詞主要用語處理下面兩種情況:
 
一是英語中表示種類、數量的名詞組.如:例:"kind of ,sort of , majority of ,part of "等,翻譯時可轉為"的"結構,這種結構在漢語中可視為是一種形容詞結構。
 
例27 Maintenance of equipment forms a port of the shop’s business.
 
譯文:該商店的一部分業務是設備維修。(這里"a port of "漢譯成"一部分"。)
 
例28 We talked for sometime with the manager of ABC Company and his questions reflected the enormity of his doubts.
 
譯文:我方同ABC公司的總經理談了一會,他提出的問題反映出你有很大的懷疑。(“enormity”譯成形容詞“很大的”。)
 
例29 From the enclosed price list you will see that we have a good variety of ladies' gloves.
 
譯文:從附上的價目單上,貴公司可以看到我們有各式各樣的女裝手套。(“variety”譯成“各式各樣的”。)
 
上述例句中的轉譯較為簡單,一般憑借語感就可以完成。這里需要注意,一是轉譯為漢語形容詞時不一定非加“的”不可,許多情況下可以省略;二是這類表示種類、數量的名詞組視情況可以轉譯,也可以不轉譯。如例27句中可譯作“一部分業務”,也可譯作“業務的一部分”;另外,一些抽象名詞(組)用于說明主語或邏輯主語的性質或特征的,翻譯時也可轉譯為形容詞。
 
例30 Marketing research is an absolute necessity in business.
 
譯文:市場調研對經商來說是絕對必要的。(這里" absolute ”漢譯成"必要的")
 
 例31 The admitted the feasibility of our proposal.
 
譯文:他們承認我們的建議是可取的。(這里"feasibility ”漢譯成"可取的")
 
 例32 We noticed a very close agreement between us on the price.
 
譯文:我們注意到雙方在價格問題上的看法非常一致。(這里" agreement”漢譯成"一致的");
 
 33 The bank is justified in dishonoring a cheque for insufficiency (inadequacy, shortage, shortfall) of funds in his customer's account.
 
譯文:因為客戶賬戶上的資金(寸頭)不足,銀行拒付支票款項是合法的。(這里" insufficiency”漢譯成"不足")
 
 6.4轉換為副詞
 
6.4.1英語名詞轉譯為中文副詞
 
英語名詞轉譯為中文副詞,多用于處理不定式短語修飾的名詞詞組。翻譯時可按照漢語行文習慣將名詞轉譯為副詞,以修飾后面的不定式動詞。
 
例34 If you give us the agency, we should spare no effort to further your trading interests in America.
 
譯文:如果貴方授予我方代理權,我們將不遺余力地擴大貴公司在美國的貿易利益。
 
例35 The United States was unhappy with slowness of Japan to advance free trade.
 
譯文:美國對日本慢吞吞地推進自由貿易進程感到不滿。(這里"slowness ”漢譯成"慢吞吞地")
 
6.4.2英語形容詞轉譯為中文副詞
 
許多形容詞修飾名詞結構的英語句子,翻譯時經常把名詞轉譯成中文的動詞,進而把形容詞轉譯成中文的副詞。
 
例36 We have made a careful investigation of the damaged goods sent to our warehouse last weekend.
 
譯文:我方仔細調查了上周末送達我方倉庫的破損物品。(這里" careful”漢譯成副詞"仔細"。)
 
 例37 A continuous increase in the trade volume of exports has led to a shortage of production.
 
譯文:外貿出口量持續增加導致生產不足。(這里" continuous”漢譯成副詞"持續")
 
 Try to translate the following sentences into Chinese.
 
⑴The mode of transport to the point of delivery is at the buyer's discretion.
 
⑵The buyer is responsible for the following costs and charges in the sale and transport of goods.
 
⑶The seller will make every effort to commence transport of the goods so that they will arrive by the delivery date.
 
⑷The buyer is entitled to inspect, or to have its agent inspect, the goods at the seller's place of business.
 
⑸ Please note that your acceptance to the offer is subject to the conditions printed on the reverse of the letter.
 
⑹The delivery will be made within 90 days of our receipt of your order, unless we otherwise inform you.
 
⑺If the buyer believes that any goods delivered are defective, the buyer will return the goods to the seller.
 
⑻The parties acknowledge that they intend to establish a mutually beneficial relationship, to this end, they will strive to resolve the disputes through amicable negotiation.
 
⑼ No alternation, deletion, or addition to these conditions will have any effect unless the seller accepts the change in writing.
 
⑽The manufacturer agreed to manufacture and reserve a quantity of goods sufficient for the sale representative to sell.
 
⑾ The L/C would remain valid until November 15.
 
⑿You are kindly requested to“accept ” this draft by signing on the back
 
⒀If you find our-terms and conditions acceptable- please cable us your order for our confirmation.
 
⒁Extremely keen competition between European and Japanese chemical manufacture in the plastic business has compelled us to bring down the price for the time being.
 
⒂The actual weight of this consignment is 15 tons less than the invoiced weight.
 
⒃ You may rest assured of our immediate attention to your order.
 
⒄We find difficulty in entertaining your claim
 
 7數字翻譯
 
外貿英語翻譯過程中,我們會經常遇到有關數字翻譯。在數字表達方面,由于英漢兩種語言存在的差異,因而在翻譯時需謹慎從事,稍有疏忽就會出錯。
 
7.1英語表達倍數增減的方式及翻譯
 
①.用“ N times + 比較級形容詞+ than… ”結構表示。
 
例1  Your office is three times larger than mine.
 
譯文:你的辦公室面積比我的大兩倍。 (你的 …… 是我的三倍 )
 
 例2 Firm A's business volume is twice bigger than firm B's.
 
譯文:甲公司的業務量比乙公司的大一倍。(甲的是乙的兩倍)
 
例3 Their operational cost is twice lower this year than last year.
 
譯文:他們今年的營運成本比去年下降了一半。 (…… 是去年的二分之一)
 
②用含有增減意義的動詞 increase/decrease, clime/fall, go up/decline…+ by N–fold; decrease, fall, decline…+by/to 表示。
 
例4 The factory was ordered to cut spindles to one-third. (by two- thirds)
 
譯文:這家紡紗廠被責令把紗錠壓縮到三分之一。(減少三分之二)
 
例5 During this period the greening area increased by two-fold.
 
譯文:這期間綠化面積擴大了一倍。
 
 
 
例6 From 1999 to 2003, the per capita net income of farmers rose by six fold, at an average annual rate of 13.4 per cent.
 
譯文:從1999年到2003年,農民的人均收入以年均百分之十三點四的速度增長了六倍。
 
在表示增加多少倍,尤其是百分之幾十,有的用by,有的則不用,在增加/增長百分之幾的情況下,不用的例子很多。
 
 
 
例7 The United States' unemployment rate dropped 1.3 percentage points during the year.
 
譯文:美國當年的失業率下降了1.3個百分點。
 
例8 Kunming Machine Tool was the best performer of the day, rising 27.5 cents or 13per cent per share.
 
譯文:昆明機床(股票)這幾天的交易最好,每股上漲27.5美分或著說百分之十三。
 
 
 
例9 Among china's major foreign trade partners, the mainland's exports to Hong Kong and Macao increased 63.0 per cent over November 1993 to 3.41 billion Yuan.
 
譯文:在中國的主要貿易伙伴當中,大陸多香港和澳門的出口1993年11月增長了百分之六十三,達到34.1億元。
 
③“N+times + as + + as”結構表示同一水平上的比較,N包括基數。
 
例10 I have spent three times as much time on this set of documents as on the first one.
 
譯文:我所花在這套文件上的時間是第一套的三倍。(甲是乙的三倍)
 
比較:我所花在這套文件上的時間比第一套多兩倍。(甲比乙多兩倍)
 
例11 This building is four times as big as that one.
 
譯文:這座大樓是那座大樓的四倍大。(甲是乙的四倍)
 
比較:這座大樓比那座大樓大三倍。(甲比乙大三倍)
 
④使用表示倍數的動詞:double, treble/duplicate, triplicate, quadruple, quadruplicate, quintuplicate, sextuplicate, octuplicate。
 
例12 The output of vegetables in the village was more than doubled last year.
 
譯文:這個村子的蔬菜產量比去年增加了一倍。
 
例13 The total value of production of the group has quadruplicated on the basis 10 years ago.
 
譯文:和10年前相比,這個集團公司的總產值翻了兩番。
 
或:這個集團公司的總產值在10年前的基礎上增長了三倍/是10年前的4倍。
 
⑤.用“as + 形容詞/副詞+again+as”表示同一水平上的比較,again指凈增加一倍。
 
例14 The number of our staff is as great again as that of yours.
 
譯文:我們的職工人數比你們多一倍。(是你們的兩倍)
 
例15 He can write as fast again as she does. 譯文:他書寫的速度比她快一倍。(是她的兩倍)
 
7.2表大概概念的數字及翻譯
 
①表不足,或少于
 
在外貿英語中常用under, below, less than, no more than, at most, at the very most, as few as等來表示不足,或少于。
 
例16 This lot of goods was shipped in less than six days.譯文:這批貨物不到六天就裝運完畢。
 
②表超過,以上
 
在商務英語中常用over, above, more than, not less than, at least, and over etc.表超過。
 
例17 After paying all expenses I had cleared over two hundred dollars.
 
譯文:把所有的費用付清之后我凈賺兩百多美元。
 
例18 There eighty and more people in our company.譯文:我們公司有80多人。
 
7.3表數量的常見習慣短語翻譯
 
在外貿英語表達中有時會遇到一些含有數字習慣短語,這些短語翻譯不能想當然,沒有把握,最好查詞典。
 
例19 Ten to one,we will overfulfill our production plan for this quarter.
 
譯文:十之八九,我們將超額完成本季度生產計劃。
 
例20 The investigation into the damaged goods was done by halves.
 
譯文:對受損貨物的調查不徹底。
 
例21 Our products are second to none in quality with a low price.
 
譯文:我方產品質量首屈一指,價廉物美。
 
例22 Can you come down a little? --Sorry, it's one price for all.
 
譯文:你能便宜一點賣嗎?對不起,不二價.
 
Try to translate the following sentences into Chinese.
 
⑴The popular film can gross five million pounds.
 
⑵He has $2,400 in the Bank, exclusive of the interest.
 
⑶The exhibits totaled 3,500 pcs.
 
⑷The export volume of this year increased to 560,000 yards.
 
⑸They raised their daily output from 700 tons to more than 900.
 
⑹The import volume of this country fell to under 3 million dollars a year.
 
⑺The price of silk has dropped from twenty to sixteen yuan per kilogram.
 
⑻This super market has an average of 60,000 customers a week.
 
⑼His income is $9,000 above the national mean.
 
⑽The mean income of families in that country is over $35,000 a year.
 
⑾The price is US$ 50 per set, CIF New York with a commission of five percent for you.
 
⑿We are one of the largest textile exporters in our country. We have handled this commodity for more than 30 years and have connections all over the world.
 
⒀ It is in view of our long-term business cooperation that we limit the increase to 20 %.
 
⒁A 3 % discount is the best we can offer, because the prices of raw materials have gone up lately.
 
⒂In order to encourage future business and as a gesture of friendship, we are prepared to make this an exception by reducing our price by 5%.
 
⒃With an eye to our future business, we’ll stretch a point this time. We’ll allow you 3 percent commission. That’s the top ra